A summary of our main S/T findings regarding European civil security systems:

1. Changes underway, but with a strong local flavor

2. Complex institutional arrangements and varying degrees of centralization

3. Strong but diverse use of voluntary organizations

4. Limited role for the private sector

5. Perceived as effective

6. Efficiency: dispersed and unknown costs

7. Sound legitimacy

8. A limited role for regional organizations

9. Developed framework for external assistance, but reluctant use

10. National civil security in the EU context: Basic acceptance, low visibility